I was trying to add a new SSD to my home PC as the booting time is much longer on hard drive. However, when I made a bootable USB and set the computer boot from the new SSD, it says no bootable device. What does this mean?
It means you can not boot Windows from a USB connected drive. You need to install the SSD to a SATA cable from inside the PC.
I did that and it works fine with Linux distro
Because it is an invalid bootable USB, that is why your computer says no bootable device.
I suspect something is wrong with your way of making it,how did you make it?
You can learn more from it:https://www.uubyte.com/ It contains many tutorials on how to make a bootable disk.
Linux is not Windows, Windows is not Linux. Windows will not natively boot from a USB stick or SSD. So, remove your HDD replace it with the new SSD and install windows again on the SSD or before you remove the old HDD clone it to the new SSD. Then you can use the old HDD on the USB port for storage.